Monday, October 31, 2011

Antimicrobial Compound Found in Sunflower Honey

Worobo Discovers Compound in a Honey That Could Lead to a New Natural Preservative
Amanda Garris, Chronicle Online, 10/17/11

Honey has been used as a topical antibiotic since the Egyptians wrote papyrus prescriptions. Now, a Cornell food scientist has identified an antimicrobial compound in a honey that makes it a promising candidate as a natural preservative to prevent food-borne illness and food spoilage.

Randy Worobo, associate professor of food microbiology at the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, and his lab members tested more than 2,000 strains of bacteria from eight types of honey from the United States and New Zealand. One of them stood out.

"In sunflower honey from South Dakota, we identified a strain of Bacillus thuringiensis the biological control known to organic gardeners as 'Bt' — which was effective against common food-borne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, the bacteria behind the recent deadly cantaloupe outbreak," said Worobo. "This Bt strain was intriguing, because it had both strong antibacterial and strong antifungal activity."

In analyzing the compounds produced by the bacteria, they found one with strong antibacterial activity that they designated as thurincin H. They recognized it as a bacteriocin, a common class of antimicrobials that bacteria produce to compete against other microbes. But compared with the some 40 known bacteriocins, it is unique: It is coded in the bacterial DNA as a unit containing three identical copies of the same bacteriocin gene.

Their findings were reported in September in Angewandte Chemie International Edition….

Sunday, October 30, 2011

Brown Propolis Extract Protects Against Vaginal Lesions Caused by Herpes Virus

Protective Effect of Brown Brazilian Propolis Against Acute Vaginal Lesions Caused by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 in Mice: Involvement of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory MechanismsCell Biochemistry and Function, 24 OCT 2011

Propolis has been highlighted for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate if brown Brazilian hydroalcoholic propolis extract (HPE) protects against vaginal lesions caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in female BALB/c mice.

The treatment was divided in 5 days of pre-treatment with HPE [50 mg•kg–1, once a day, intragastric (i.g.)], HSV-2 infection [10 µl of a solution 1 × 102 plaque-forming unit (PFU•ml–1 HSV-2), intravaginal inoculation at day 6] and post-treatment with HPE (50 mg•kg–1) for 5 days more. At day 11, the animals were killed, and the in vivo analysis (score of lesions) and ex vivo analysis [haematological and histological evaluation; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities; reactive species (RS), tyrosine nitration levels, non-protein thiols (NPSH) and ascorbic acid (AA) levels] were carried out.

HPE treatment reduced extravaginal lesions and the histological damage caused by HSV-2 infection in vaginal tissues of animals. HPE was able to decrease RS, tyrosine nitration, AA levels and MPO activity. Also, it protected against the inhibition of CAT activity in vaginal tissues of mice.

HPE promoted protective effect on HSV-2 infected animals by acting on inflammatory and oxidative processes, and this effect probably is caused by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Saturday, October 29, 2011

Bee Venom Kills Cancer Cells

Anti-Cancer Effect of Bee Venom Toxin and Melittin in Ovarian Cancer Cells Through Induction of Death Receptors and Inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 Pathway
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 2011 Oct 15

We investigated whether bee venom and melittin, a major component of bee venom, inhibit cell growth through enhancement of death receptor expressions in the human ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3 and PA-1.

Bee venom (1-5μg/ml) and melittin (0.5-2μg/ml) inhibited the growth of SKOV3 and PA-1 ovarian cancer cells by the induction of apoptotic cell death in a dose dependent manner.

Consistent with apoptotic cell death, expression of death receptor (DR) 3 and DR6 was increased in both cancer cells, but expression of DR4 was increased only in PA-1 cells. Expression of DR downstream pro-apoptotic proteins including caspase-3, 8, and Bax was concomitantly increased, but the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 and the expression of Bcl-2 were inhibited by treatment with bee venom and melittin in SKOV3 and PA-1 cells.

Expression of cleaved caspase-3 was increased in SKOV3, but cleaved caspase-8 was increased in PA-1 cells. Moreover, deletion of DR3, DR4, and DR6 by small interfering RNA significantly reversed bee venom and melittin-induced cell growth inhibitory effect as well as down regulation of STAT3 by bee venom and melittin in SKOV3 and PA-1 ovarian cancer cell.

These results suggest that bee venom and melittin induce apoptotic cell death in ovarian cancer cells through enhancement of DR3, DR4, and DR6 expression and inhibition of STAT3 pathway.

Friday, October 28, 2011

Austrian Apitherapy Conference November 13 in Graz

The Austrian Apitherapy Society (ÖGA) will hold its 3rd Austrian Conference on Apitherapy on November 13, 2011, in Minoritensaal, Graz / Austria

For more details, please contact:

Dr. Roland Berger

Thursday, October 27, 2011

New ‘N Chromosome Royal Jelly’ Used to Treat Ulcers, Boost Libido

N Chromosome Royal Jelly for Disease Control and Increasing Human Libido
Caspian Bee

Royal jelly production has always been a difficult part of beekeeping as it requires much skill. That said, the benefits of royal jelly outweigh the difficulty and thus it is worth practising and perfecting the skill. We have discovered a new way of producing royal jelly by using drone larva for queen grafting. In so doing, the drone larva is supplied with quantities of royal jelly we separate the drones from the jelly in their pupa stage. The combination of both worker jelly and royal jelly produces amazing results. We call the combination of these two jellys N Chromosome Royal Jelly.

We found the following benefits of N Chromosome Royal Jelly. When we tested royal jelly and its ability to improve hormone production and increase libido, we discovered that N chromosome is at least 10 times more effective than normal royal jelly in increasing libido. Caspian Apiaries is the only company producing N Chromosome royal jelly.

In addition, we found people who had long time ulcer problems did not have these issues after 48 hours of using the N Chromosome royal jelly. We therefore tried to find as many individuals as possible who suffered from either short-term or long-term ulcer problems. The results were shocking. Our study looked at 480 individuals who had ulcers for two months to nine years. These individuals used antibiotics and pain relief products to relieve their pain; however, when they used N Chromosome Royal Jelly for 2 days to 28 days their ulcers went into remission.

We also found almost any metabolism disease was cured or significantly reduced with our royal jelly treatments.

Wednesday, October 26, 2011

Video: Bee Venom and Honey Facial Featured on Dr. Oz Show


Some of the most potent ingredients in the beauty industry come from the beehive. You’ve probably heard about the healing benefits of honey or beeswax, but you may not have heard about the anti-aging properties of bee venom.

When a bee stings, they expel venom. Your skin reacts to the venom as an irritation. Accordingly, your skin increases circulation and stimulates production of collagen and elastin, which plumps and firms fine lines and wrinkles.

As a result, bee venom facials are increasing in popularity and have been shown to lessen wrinkles in four weeks. The bee venom facemask sits for 20 minutes; this is followed by a maintenance regimen that entails applying dabs of bee venom night cream.

Tuesday, October 25, 2011

Honey Protects Against Health Damage Caused by Smoking

Antioxidant Protective Effect of Honey in Cigarette Smoke-Induced Testicular Damage in Rats
Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(9):5508-21, Epub 2011 Aug 29

Cigarette smoke (CS) can cause testicular damage and we investigated the possible protective effect of honey against CS-induced testicular damage and oxidative stress in rats.

CS exposure (8 min, 3 times daily) and honey supplementation (1.2 g/kg daily) were given for 13 weeks. Rats exposed to CS significantly had smaller seminiferous tubules diameter and epithelial height, lower Leydig cell count and increased percentage of tubules with germ cell loss. CS also produced increased lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, as well as reduced total antioxidant status (TAS) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT).

However, supplementation of honey significantly reduced histological changes and TBARS level, increased TAS level, as well as significantly restored activities of GPx, SOD and CAT in rat testis.

These findings may suggest that honey has a protective effect against damage and oxidative stress induced by CS in rat testis.

Monday, October 24, 2011

Honey a Rich Source of Phenolic Bioactive Molecules

Role of Honey Polyphenols in Health
Journal of ApiProduct & ApiMedical Science, Vol. 3 (4) pp. 141 – 159, October 2011

Many bioactive phenolic compounds have been reported in hive products.

This review discusses the occurrence and putative therapeutic applications of these phenolic compounds and is intended to be read by scientists, physicians, nutritionists, and other researchers interested in the rapidly developing science of honey and related products.

In view of the information presented here, honey can be regarded as a rich source of phenolic bioactive molecules with promising potential benefits to health.

Sunday, October 23, 2011

Brazilian Green Propolis a Potential Immunosuppressant

Brazilian Green Propolis and Its Constituent, Artepillin C Inhibits Allogeneic Activated Human CD4 T Cells Expansion and Activation
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, In Press

Propolis has long been used as a popular folk medicine by various ethnic groups due to its wide spectrum of alleged biological and pharmaceutical properties including anti-microbial, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory functions. All these can be linked to the modulation of immune function. Therefore, it will be relevant for us to find out whether there is any novel compound that can account for such action and the mechanism involved.

Aim of the study

We investigated the immune modulating effect of Brazilian green propolis (PBrazil) and its constituent Artepillin C (Art-C) by using mixed leukocytes reaction.

Materials and methods

The cytotoxic effect of Art-C on non-tumorigenic human liver cell line miHA and non-tumorigenic human kidney cell line HK-2 as well as human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured by XTT cell proliferation assay. The effect of PBrazil and Art-C on T cell proliferation and activation were determined by using carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) and by CD25 expression, respectively. Cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukins such as IL-2, IL-17 were measured by intracellular cytokine staining and IL-10 was measured by ELISA. The effect of PBrazil and Art-C on regulatory T cells (Treg) induction was determined by the Foxp3 expression. The apoptotic effect of these compounds on CFSE labeled alloreactive T cells was measured by using Annexin V.


Using mixed leukocytes reaction we demonstrated for the first time that both Art-C and PBrazil significantly inhibited the alloreactive CD4 T cell proliferation, activation, and suppressed the expressions of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17 in these alloreactive CD4 T cells. The inhibitions of Art-C and PBrazil on CD4 T cells were not due to direct cytotoxic effect on PBMC or inducing regulatory T cells differentiation. Both Art-C and PBrazil were found to selectively induce apoptosis in proliferating T cells. The anti-proliferative effect of Art-C and PBrazil were reversible and were also applied to the activated T cells.


In conclusion, our results indicated that Art-C and PBrazil can suppress alloreactive CD4 T cell responses in vitro, suggesting that Art-C could be used as a potential immunosuppressant, either solely or as adjunct agent in treating graft versus host disease.

Saturday, October 22, 2011

Honey-Based Korean Herbal Prescription Helps Prevent Memory Loss

Neuroprotective Effects of a Traditional Herbal Prescription on Transient Cerebral Global Ischemia in Gerbils
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, In Press

Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), a traditional herbal prescription composed of Rehmannia glutinosa var. purpurae, Panax ginseng, Poria cocos, Lycium chinense, Aquillaria agallocha and honey, has been used to treat age-related symptoms, such as amnesia or dementia, and has been shown to ameliorate scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. However, the effects of KOK on transient cerebral global ischemia-induced brain damage are unclear.

Materials and methods

Transient cerebral global ischemia was induced by occluding the bilateral common carotid artery for 5 min followed by reperfusion for 7 days. KOK (0.25, 0.5, 1, or 2 g/kg) was administered orally immediately after reperfusion and once a day over the next 7 days. Y-maze or novel object recognition tasks were to analyze learning and memory capabilities at 4 or 5 days after reperfusion, respectively. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry were used for evaluation of the effect of KOK on neuronal degeneration.


Histochemical studies showed that KOK increased the number of viable cells detected by Nissl staining and decreased the number of degenerated neuronal cells detected by Fluoro-Jade B staining in the hippocampal CA1 region. In the immunohistochemical study, the sub-chronic KOK administration attenuated the ischemia-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes and the increase of cytokine IL-1β (P < 0.05). In addition, KOK administration significantly attenuated the ischemia-induced cognitive impairments observed in the Y-maze and novel object recognition tasks (P < 0.05).


These findings suggest that the neuroprotective effects of KOK may be mediated by its anti-inflammatory activities, resulting in the attenuation of memory impairment.

Friday, October 21, 2011

A Study on Release of Propolis Extract Components From Emulsion-Type Dispersions

Medicina (Kaunas) 2011; 47 (6): 354-359

Background and Objective. Carrier development is one of the essential stages in the formulation of semisolid pharmaceutical dosage form for topical application. The stability of semisolid preparation during storage can be predicted from rheological testing. An adequate composition of semisolid preparation determines its stability and proper release of drug substance, and allows bypassing long-term heating and melting of the cream base components while incorporating complex extracts. Soft propolis extract, well known for its antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects, was chosen as a complex biologically active ingredient for the development of emulsion dispersion system.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of physical-chemical characteristics of the carrier on the release rate of biologically active ingredients from the modeled dosage form in vitro, thus justifying the relevance of the carrier composition and applied technologies.

Material and Methods. Soft propolis extract (1%–3%) was incorporated into water-in-oil type emulsion. The quality of the model systems was evaluated referring to their viscosity, quantity of polyphenols and their rate of release from the preparation by applying an in vitro model. Quantitative determination of polyphenols was performed by spectrophotometry using a standard calibration curve of ferulic acid.

Results. The results showed that a stable homogeneous semisolid emulsion system containing soft propolis extract could be produced when the concentration of emulsifier was in the range of 3%–12%. The quantity of emulsifier had an impact on the viscosity of semisolid systems, but practically had no effect on the release rate of polyphenols from the cream matrix. The results also demonstrated that the added amount of soft propolis extract had a less significant effect than temperature of the system.

Conclusion. It was confirmed that changes in the viscosity of emulsion dispersion systems had no effect on the stability of model dispersion systems when temperature was increased, and this has to be evaluated to determine the storage conditions of the model preparations.

Thursday, October 20, 2011

Propolis Might Be Used as Natural Mouthwash

Propolis Mouthwash: A New Beginning
J Indian Soc Periodontol, 2011 Apr;15(2):121-5


This study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of a propolis-containing mouthrinse in inhibition of plaque formation and improvement of gingival health. 


Thirty subjects were selected and randomly assigned into three groups of ten subjects each, which received a propolis-containing mouthrinse, or a negative control (Saline) or a positive control (Chlorhexidine 0.2%). Plaque index and gingival index were assessed at baseline and at a five-day interval.


Chlorhexidine mouthwash was found to be better than propolis and saline in inhibiting plaque formation. Propolis was found to be only marginally better than chlorhexidine in improving gingival scores.


The present study suggests that propolis might be used as a natural mouthwash, an alternative to chemical mouthwashes, e.g., chlorhexidine. Further, long term trials are required for more accurate data and any conclusive evidence.

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Propolis Extracts May Allow Inexpensive Cancer Treatment

Cytotoxic Constituents of Propolis Inducing Anticancer Effects: A Review 
J Pharm Pharmacol, 2011 Nov;63(11):1378-86

Objectives: Propolis is a honeybee product used extensively in traditional medicine for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anticancer effects. Propolis exhibits a broad spectrum of biological activities because it is a complex mixture of natural substances. In this review, the antitumour effects of propolis extracts and its constituents (e.g. flavonoids, terpenes and caffeic acid phenethyl ester) are discussed. 

Key findings: The effect of propolis on experimental carcinogenesis is discussed, as well as its possible mechanisms of action against tumours, involving apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and interference on metabolic pathways. Propolis seems to be efficient against different tumour cells both in vitro and in vivo, which suggests its potential in the development of new anticancer drugs.

Summary: Propolis extracts may be important economically and would allow a relatively inexpensive cancer treatment. Preclinical investigations are needed to further elucidate the benefits of propolis and its antitumour properties.

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Bee Venom Therapy a Popular Chinese Treatment for MS, Arthritis, Shingles

Bee Venom Therapy is Making Quite a Buzz in Beijing
Time Out Beijing, October 2011

After being approved as an official medical practice by the Chinese government in 2007, the buzz around apitherapy (otherwise known as fengliao) has made it the fastest growing trend in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The treatment, which involves the use of honeybees for medicinal purposes, is being increasingly incorporated into the regimen of local hospitals and has been touted as a cure for everything from multiple sclerosis to shingles.

Dropping by the Shunyi Apitherapy Hospital to try out its ‘bee venom therapy’, we can’t help but wonder if getting stung by bees in order to improve your health can really work?

As abrasive as it may sound, the therapy is a lot more complicated than simply swatting the nearest hornets’ nest. Our doctor selects a live bee with his tweezers (to ensure the potency of the poison), kills it with a quick squeeze, and, with a steady hand, positions the stinger with surgical precision. Incorporating other aspects of Chinese medicine, the stinger is then applied to the acupuncture points best suited to where the patient’s ailment lies.

Despite its folk medicine vibe, there is science behind the treatment. The poison is thought to be of benefit because the sting causes the body to emit anti-inflammatory hormones; these are said to help reduce swelling in injury – although anyone allergic to bee stings should stay clear. From a TCM point of view, the acupuncture points connect to key nerve paths and these help to distribute the ‘heat’ and healing effect from the bee’s poison…

Shunyi Apitherapy Hospital

Unit 2, Building 8, 101 Jianxin Nan Qu, Shunyi district (6944 1779). Open 9am-4pm daily. Treatment starts from 100RMB. Some staff speak basic English, but it’s best to go with someone who knows Mandarin. 顺义区建新南区8栋2单元101

Monday, October 17, 2011

Royal Jelly Component Shows Anti-Inflammatory Effects

Inhibitory Effect of 10-Hydroxy-Trans-2-Decenoic Acid on LPS-Induced IL-6 Production Via Reducing I{kappa}B-{zeta} Expression Innate Immun, 2011 Sep 26

The effect of 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA), a major fatty acid component of royal jelly, was investigated on LPS-induced cytokine production in murine macrophage cell line, RAW264 cells.

10H2DA inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 production dose-dependently, but did not inhibit TNF-α production. 10H2DA inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation in a dose-dependent fashion. In addition, NF-κB activation induced by over-expression of either MyD88 or Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF) was also inhibited by 10H2DA. Degradation of IκB-α and phosphorylation of IκB kinase-α were not inhibited by 10H2DA.

On the other hand, reduction of LPS-induced IκB-ζ expression was discovered. Production of lipocalin-2 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which is dependent on IκB-ζ, was also inhibited by 10H2DA, whereas that of IκB-ζ-independent cytokines/chemokines, such as IFN-β, murine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (JE), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-2, was not.

Together, 10H2DA specifically inhibited LPS-induced IκB-ζ expression, followed by inhibition of IκB-ζ-dependent gene production.

These results suggest that 10H2DA is one of the components of royal jelly to show anti-inflammatory effects and could be a therapeutic drug candidate for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases associated with IκB-ζ and IL-6 production.

Sunday, October 16, 2011

Honey-Coated Bandages Comparable to Conventional Treatment of Malignant Wounds

The Effect of Honey-Coated Bandages Compared with Silver-Coated Bandages on Treatment of Malignant Wounds — A Randomized Study
Wound Repair and Regeneration, Early View

Malignant wounds (MWs) occur in 5–10% of all cancer patients. Malodor and exudation are the most common side effects.

The aim was to determine the influence of honey-coated compared with silver-coated bandages on treatment of MWs.

Patients were randomly selected to enter either group A (honey-coated bandages) or group B (silver-coated bandages). Parameters were the following: wound size, cleanliness, malodor, exudation, and wound pain. Digital photographs, visual analog scales (VAS), and wound morphology registration were used for measurement at baseline and following the 4-week intervention. Sixty-nine patients with MWs and advanced cancer, aged 47–90 (median 65.6), were included.

No statistically significant difference was noted between the groups with respect to wound size, degree of cleanliness, exudation, malodor, and wound pain. There was a median decrease in wound size of 15 cm2 and 8 cm2 in group A and B, respectively (p = 0.63). Based on post-intervention pooled data from the groups, improvement was seen in 62% of the participants with respect to wound size and in 58% (n = 69) with respect to cleanliness. The VAS score for malodor (p = 0.007) and exudation (p < 0.0001) improved significantly post-intervention.

Patients with reduced wound size had a median survival time of 387 days compared with 134 days in patients with no wound reduction (p = 0.003). The use of honey-coated and silver-coated bandages improved the outcome of MWs. No differences were found between the two regimens. Both types of bandages are recommended for use by patients with MWs containing tumor debris and necrosis.

Saturday, October 15, 2011

Two New Furan Derivatives from Bee-Collected Rape Pollen

J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2011 Oct;13(10):930-3

Two new furan derivatives named pollenfurans A (1) and B (2) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of bee-collected rape pollen. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis.

The absolute configurations of the 6,7-diol moiety in both compounds 1 and 2 were confirmed by Snatzke's method, observing the induced circular dichroism after the addition of dimolybdenum tetraacetate in DMSO.

Friday, October 14, 2011

Honey Bee Larvae May Help Treat Tinnitus

Effect of Lyophilized Powder Made From Enzymolyzed Honeybee Larvae on Tinnitus-Related Symptoms, Hearing Levels, and Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis-Related Hormones
Ear Hear, 2011 Oct 3

OBJECTIVES: Tinnitus interferes with sleep and concentration which is associated with depression; however, no drug has been effective in treating tinnitus. Our purpose is to evaluate our hypothesis that the treatment with lyophilized powder of enzymolyzed honeybee larvae as a complementary medicine may provide a therapeutic effect on tinnitus-related symptoms.

DESIGN: Sixty tinnitus sufferers participated in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial using the lyophilized powder of enzymolyzed honeybee larvae or a placebo. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, a visual analog scale to rate the severity of tinnitus, hearing levels, and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis-related hormones drawn early in the morning were measured upon entry into the study and after 12 wk of follow-up.

RESULTS: The lyophilized powder of enzymolyzed honeybee larvae was not superior to placebo with regard to the total score on the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and the visual analog scale. However, subjects in the honeybee larvae group showed significant improvements in some items about depression associated with tinnitus, whereas subjects in the placebo group showed no improvement in any items. The honeybee larvae group showed significant improvements in the hearing levels at 2 and 4 kHz in the audiogram of the better ear. The intervention of the lyophilized powder of enzymolyzed honeybee larvae was associated with lower serum cortisol levels, serum prolactin levels, and cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate ratios. The ratios in the placebo group significantly were increased.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the lyophilized powder of enzymolyzed honeybee larvae represents an effective complementary medicine to alleviate depression associated with tinnitus by regulating the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study was enrolled in the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000003022).

Thursday, October 13, 2011

Honey Comparable to Conventional Treatment of Eye Injuries

Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Tualang Honey in Alkali Injury on the Eyes of Rabbits: Experimental Animal Study
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
, 2011


Alkali injury is one of the most devastating injuries to the eye. It results in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Chemical eye injury is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents play a major role in the treatment of chemical eye injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory (clinical and histopathological) and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey versus conventional treatment in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits.


A preliminary study was carried out prior to the actual study to establish the alkali chemical injury on rabbit's cornea and we found that alkali chemical injury with 2 N NaOH showed severe clinical inflammatory features. In actual study, alkali injury with 2 N NaOH was induced in the right eye of 10 New Zealand White rabbits' cornea. The rabbits were divided into two groups, Group A was given conventional treatment and Group B was treated with both topical and oral Tualang honey. Clinical inflammatory features of the right eye were recorded at 12 hours, 24 hours, 72 hours, 5th day and 7th day post induction of alkali burn on the cornea. The histopathological inflammatory features of the right corneas of all rabbits were also evaluated on day-7. The level of total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation products in the aqueous humour, vitreous humour and serum at day-7 were estimated biochemically. Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyse the data.


There was no statistically significant difference in clinical inflammatory features (p > 0.05) between honey treated and the conventional treated group at different times of examination. Histopathological examination of the cornea showed the number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes was below 50 for both groups (mild grade). There was also no significant difference in the level of total antioxidant status as well as lipid peroxidation products in aqueous humour (p = 0.117, p = 0.382 respectively), vitreous humour (p = 0.917, p = 0.248 respectively) and serum (p = 0.917, p = 0.332 respectively) between honey treated and the conventional treated group.


Tualang honey has almost the equal effects when compared with the conventional treatment in treating alkali injury on rabbit's eye. Future research with more number of rabbits and control group is warranted to explore the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey.

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Use of Honey to Prevent Blockage of Coronary Stents Discussed

Is honey a plausible candidate for the prevention of in-stent restenosis?
Journal of ApiProduct & ApiMedical Science, Vol. 3 (4) pp. 160 - 163

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the major cause of death worldwide. Initially balloon angioplasty (BA) seemed to be a commonly available treatment for such disease. The major limitation of this method is restenosis.

With the advancement of coronary stenting, the incidence rate of restenosis after ballon angioplasty has been greatly reduced. However, in-stent restenosis (accounting for 10- 40% of patients: mainly due to neointimal proliferation) has been a major drawback for such coronary interventions.

To overcome this, drug eluting stents (DES) have evolved as a prospective proposal. Stents coated with various anti-inflammatory, anti-migratory or anti-proliferative agents are under investigation. These additives suppress the inflammatory response, smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, thereby inhibiting in-stent restenosis.

In this context, it is proposed that honey with diverse polyphenolic and flavonoid composition may prevent in-stent restenosis. Recent research demonstrated that crude honey could exert an anti-proliferative effect against various cancer cell lines such as colon, breast, bladder, oral squamous cell carcinoma and osteosarcoma.

Flavonoids and phenolic compounds present in honey have been attributed individually for their anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative potential and it has been shown that usage of honey in wound healing reduces inflammation and pain.

Therefore, we hypothesize that crude honey which is rich in flavonoid and phenolic compounds may be a potential agent in preventing the in-stent restenosis.

If our hypothesis is proven correct, honey will be a valuable candidate for saving millions of lives by preventing in-stent restenosis.

Tuesday, October 11, 2011

Honey Used to Treat Gluteofemoral Fistulas

Alternative Treatment of Gluteofemoral Fistulas Using Honey: A Case Report
Int Wound J, 2011 Oct 7

Perianal fistula is a common disease that affects particular patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Honey has been used as a natural remedy for centuries for the treatment of various disorders.

We report a patient with persistent fistulas, in whom conventional medical and surgical therapy failed. In this case, most of fistulas in gluteofemoral region were completely healed and closed after 6 months of treatment with honey. In addition, honey reduced inflammation, pain and induration of affected region.

This medical approach positively affected patient's mental condition and also improved his quality of life.

Monday, October 10, 2011

New Zealand Honeys Show Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Indigenous New Zealand Honeys Exhibit Multiple Anti-Inflammatory Activities
Innate Immun, 2011 Oct 6

Recent evidence suggests a potential role for honeys in mediating clinical inflammation and tissue damage. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of a selection of previously untested indigenous New Zealand (NZ) honeys.

We found that several, but not all, New Zealand rewarewa, manuka and kanuka honey samples exhibited potent, dose-dependent reduction of human neutrophil superoxide production in vitro. This inhibitory activity did not correlate with levels of known phenolic-based free radical scavengers. Furthermore, the active honeys did not scavenge superoxide generated in a cell-free xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay.

In C57BL/6 J mice, topical application of manuka and rewarewa honey samples with the highest in vitro activity suppressed arachidonic acid-induced ear oedema, and rewarewa honey suppressed both oedema and leukocyte (monocyte and neutrophil) infiltration.

Together, these findings demonstrate that some indigenous NZ honeys exhibit clinically relevant anti-inflammatory activity. Further investigation is warranted to identify the active component(s) and mechanisms responsible for these activities and to determine potential applications for anti-inflammatory honeys in the topical treatment of clinical inflammation.

Sunday, October 09, 2011

Medicinal Benefits of Honey Mentioned in the Quran

Honey Bees Offer a Lesson of Goodness
By Aziz Junejo, The Seattle Times, 10/8/11

During the winter of 2006, an extraordinary occurrence happened across America, one that put our food supply at risk.

Without a sign, millions of honey bees disappeared from their hives, a phenomenon that raised awareness of their fragile existence and their importance to our survival.

Honey bees are one of the most easily recognized insects in the world today and, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, we depend on these essential pollinators for about a third of our diet and much of what we wear.

When these little buzzing workers forage, pollen sticks to their fuzzy hairs, then rubs off on the next flower, fertilizing it, improving production for hundreds of fruits, vegetables and oilseeds.

Among the 114 chapters of the Quran, one is actually named Al-Nahl — The Bee.

God says in the Quran:

Behold! Your Lord inspired the bees to build their hives in the mountains, in trees, and in anything which men may build for beekeeping, and feed on every kind of fruit and follow the smooth ways of your Lord. From its belly comes forth a syrup of different colors, which contains a healing for mankind. Certainly in this there is a sign for those who think. (16:68-69)

The mode of conjugation in the Arabic text is intended for the female gender and, in fact, honey bees are ruled by a queen, with female workers that build the hives, collect nectar and produce honey...

Saturday, October 08, 2011

Honey May Help Prevent Post-Operative Eye Inflammation

Honey Prophylaxis Reduces the Risk of Endophthalmitis During Perioperative Period of Eye Surgery
Phytotherapy Research, Early View

Endophthalmitis following eye surgery remains a rare but serious complication. Topical fluoroquinolones have been used as prophylactic agents against endophthalmitis. However, the emerging resistance of ocular pathogens to fluoroquinolones may preclude their routine use.

Honey, a natural antimicrobial product with wound healing properties, is a promising candidate for the prophylaxis of endophthalmitis.

The goal of this study was to determine whether 25% (w/v) honey solution is effective in eradicating bacterial ocular pathogens in the perioperative period in patients scheduled for cataract surgery or vitrectomy, and to compare its efficacy to 0.3% ofloxacin.

In this pilot study, 101 patients were randomized to honey (n = 49) or ofloxacin (n = 52) treatment. In both groups, eye drops were administered five times a day for 7 days before and 5 days after surgery. Before administration of the antibacterial agents, 18 and 25 isolates were detected in the ofloxacin and honey group, respectively.

After 7 days of administration, four isolates (coagulase-negative Staphylococcus) were detected in each therapeutic group. No significant difference in antibacterial effect was found between groups. These results indicate that honey may act as a prophylactic agent of endophthalmitis; however, further studies are needed to characterize its ocular penetration properties.

Friday, October 07, 2011

Bee Venom Component May Help Prevent Liver Fibrosis

Melittin Attenuates Liver Injury in Thioacetamide-Treated Mice Through Modulating Inflammation and Fibrogenesis
Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 2011 Oct 3

Liver fibrosis represents a process of healing and scarring in response to chronic liver injury. Following injury, an acute inflammation response takes place resulting in moderate cell necrosis and extracellular matrix damage.

Melittin, the major bioactive component in the venom of honey bee Apis mellifera, is a 26-residue amphipathic peptide with well-known cytolytic, antimicrobial and proinflammatory properties. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of melittin have not been elucidated in liver fibrosis.

We investigated whether melittin ameliorates liver inflammation and fibrosis in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis.

Two groups of mice were treated with TAA (200 mg/L, in drinking water), one of the groups of mice was co-treated with melittin (0.1 mg/kg) for 12 weeks while the other was not. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were cultured with tumor necrosis factor α in the absence or presence of melittin. Melittin suppresses the expression of proinflammatory cytokines through the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway. Moreover, melittin reduces the activity of HSCs in vitro, and decreases the expression of fibrotic gene responses in TAA-induced liver fibrosis.

Taken together, melittin prevents TAA-induced liver fibrosis by inhibiting liver inflammation and fibrosis, the mechanism of which is the interruption of the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results suggest that melittin could be an effective agent for preventing liver fibrosis.

Thursday, October 06, 2011

Royal Jelly Beneficial for Hypertension and Cholesterol

Clinical Advisor, 10/4/2011

…Royal jelly contains a complex mixture of proteins, vitamins, minerals and carbohydrates. The B vitamins are found in the largest quantity, followed closely by an assortment of 20 different amino acids, calcium, zinc, iron and manganese.

A detailed breakdown of the constituents of royal jelly reveals lipids (3%-7%), carbohydrates (10%-12%), proteins (12%-15%), water (60%-70%) and traces of minerals and vitamins. Of particular medical interest is the presence of gamma globulin, one of a group of specific proteins studied for their immune-modulating potential and pro-estrogenic compounds.

Since the beehive has only one queen, the supply of royal jelly is much lower than that of honey. Honey is used as food for the worker bees, of which there are thousands, but royal jelly is reserved for those select few larvae that will be fed to become queens. A large, healthy hive of honeybees will produce about 500 g of royal jelly in a six-month period.


Due to its rich content of antioxidants, proteins and other nutrients, royal jelly is reportedly good for whatever ails you. It is specifically recommended for treatment of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and inflammation, and is being studied for a possible anti-tumor effect as well as a treatment for male infertility.

In a small trial, patients were assigned to the royal jelly intervention or placebo. Treatment-group participants were given 6 g daily of royal jelly formulation for four weeks. At the end of the trial, the treatment group's total cholesterol level was reduced 6%, and LDL was reduced more than 9%. 

Egyptian researchers investigated the effect of royal jelly on conception rates among couples with known male asthenozoospermia…

Wednesday, October 05, 2011

Honey and Bee Pollen Intake Helps Lower Cholesterol Levels

Correction of Atherogenic Dyslipidemia with Honey, Pollen and Bee Bread in Patients with Different Body Mass [Article in Russian]
Ter Arkh, 2011;83(8):58-62

AIM: To assess efficacy of treatment of patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia (ADL) with beekeeping products (honey, pollen, bee bread).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: ADL parameters were examined in 157 patients (64 males and 93 females) aged 39 to 72 (mean age 61,7 + 8,5 years) with ADL. Products of beekeeping were given in the absence of allergy and individual resistance to honey, pollen, bee bread. The patients were divided into four groups: patients on hypolipidemic diet only, on diet and honey or pollen, on bee bread, combined treatment - diet, honey, pollen.

RESULTS: A significant hypolipidemic effect was registered in patients taking honey in combination with pollen (total cholesterol decreased by 18,3 %, LDLP cholesterol by 23,9 %) and bee bread (total cholesterol decreased by 15,7 %, LDLP cholesterol by 20,5 %).

CONCLUSION: Improvement of blood lipid composition in taking honey and pollen in overweight (body mass index - BMI 25 - 30) and obese (BMI over 30) patients occurs only in loss of body mass.

Tuesday, October 04, 2011

Bee Venom Component May Help Treat Acute Pancreatitis

Melittin Inhibits Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis via Inhibition of the JNK Pathway
Int Immunopharmacol, 2011 Sep 20. [Epub ahead of print]

The major compound of bee venom, melittin, has been used as an anti-inflammatory reagent for decades. However, the potential of melittin to ameliorate acute pancreatitis (AP) is unknown.

Our aim was to investigate the effect of melittin on cerulein-induced AP. Pre- and post-treatment with melittin inhibited histological changes in the pancreas and lungs during cerulein-induced AP.

Pancreatic weight/body weight ratios; digestive enzymes, including amylase and lipase; serum and pancreatic cytokine expression; and myeloperoxidase activity were decreased. In addition, treatment with melittin inhibited the activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinase (JNK) in the pancreas during cerulein-induced pancreatitis.

In accordance with the results of in vivo experiments, melittin reduced cerulein-induced cell death, and production of inflammatory cytokines.

In conclusion, our results suggest that melittin attenuated AP and AP-associated lung injury through the inhibition of JNK activation.

Monday, October 03, 2011

Apitherapy Products Popular in Mexico

Honey: The Solution for Many Ills (Spanish)
El Diario de Coahuila, 9/28/2011

Bee pollen, Romano Fray drinks, liquor, soap, honey, milk and liniment with bee venom, are products that have helped mankind to cure and control disease. Rosalinda Arriaga Cabrera already has several years to develop these alternatives.

The sale of honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly, energy supplements, drinks Fray Romano, bee venom and honey-derived foods are increasing. The population because it's nice looking.

Rosalinda says his father and mother Fernando Cabrera Felipe Arriaga began more than 27 years the project to become beekeepers and she continues that work.

There are products for pain, arnica drops used to cure or mitigate disease.

He says that honey has healing properties and is also used externally and to heal wounds, relieve bronchial tubes and lungs.

Pollen is a food supplement containing vitamins, minerals and proteins that build bone structure. It helps eliminate fatigue and anemia…

Sunday, October 02, 2011

Propolis Antioxidative Activity Investigated

Antioxidative Activity of Propolis Extract in Yeast Cells
J. Agric. Food Chem, Just Accepted Manuscript

The antioxidative activities of propolis and its main phenolic compounds, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, were investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

After 1-h exposure of the yeast cells, their intracellular oxidation was measured using 2`,7`-dichlorofluorescein. Yeast cells exposed to 96% ethanolic extracts of propolis in DMSO (EEP) showed decreased intracellular oxidation, with no significant differences seen for the individual phenolic compounds.

However, cellular uptake was only seen for a moderate polar fraction of EEP (E2) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester. The EEP antioxidative activity thus resulted from this E2 fraction of EEP. The influence of EEP was also investigated at the mitochondrial proteome level, by analysing its profile after 1-h exposure of the yeast cells to EEP and E2.

Changes in the levels of antioxidative proteins and proteins involved in ATP synthesis were seen.

Saturday, October 01, 2011

Red Propolis Extract Kills More Cancer Cells Than That of Green Propolis

Comparison of Effects of the Ethanolic Extracts of Brazilian Propolis on Human Leukemic Cells As Assessed with the MTT Assay
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2012

Propolis is a resinous product collected by honey bees. It was also reported that propolis has a wide variety of biological actions, including antimicrobial activity and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and suppressive effects of dioxin toxicity activities.

The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro cytotoxic activities of green propolis (G12) and red propolis (G13) in human leukemia cells. These cells were incubated with different concentrations of propolis and 48 hours after the IC50 was calculated for each cell.

The results showed that the red propolis has cytotoxic effect in vitro higher than green propolis. Red propolis was showed to be cytostatic in K562 cells and caused the same amount of apoptosis as its control Gleevec.

In conclusion, these results showed that red propolis is more cytotoxic than the green propolis in a variety of human cell lines of leukemia. Red propolis may contain drugs capable of inhibiting cancer cell growth. Therefore, further isolation of respective chemical ingredients from the red propolis (G13) for identification of the activities is necessary.